3 years ago

Photo-induced second-order nonlinearity in stoichiometric silicon nitride waveguides.

Marco A.G. Porcel, Peter J.M. van der Slot, Jesse Mak, Klaus-J. Boller, Caterina Taballione

We report the observation of second-harmonic generation in stoichiometric silicon nitride waveguides grown via low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. Quasi-rectangular waveguides with a large cross section were used, with a height of 1 {\mu}m and various different widths, from 0.6 to 1.2 {\mu}m, and with various lengths from 22 to 74 mm. Using a mode-locked laser delivering 6-ps pulses at 1064 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 20 MHz, 15% of the incoming power was coupled through the waveguide, making maximum average powers of up to 15 mW available in the waveguide. Second-harmonic output was observed with a delay of minutes to several hours after the initial turn-on of pump radiation, showing a fast growth rate between 10$^{-4}$ to 10$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with the shortest delay and highest growth rate at the highest input power. After this first, initial build-up, the second-harmonic became generated instantly with each new turn-on of the pump laser power. Phase matching was found to be present independent of the used waveguide width, although the latter changes the fundamental and second-harmonic phase velocities. We address the presence of a second-order nonlinearity and phase matching, involving an initial, power-dependent build-up, to the coherent photogalvanic effect. The effect, via the third-order nonlinearity and multiphoton absorption leads to a spatially patterned charge separation, which generates a spatially periodic, semi-permanent, DC-field-induced second-order susceptibility with a period that is appropriate for quasi-phase matching. The maximum measured second-harmonic conversion efficiency amounts to 0.4% in a waveguide with 0.9 x 1 {\mu}m$^2$ cross section and 36 mm length, corresponding to 53 {\mu}W at 532 nm with 13 mW of IR input coupled into the waveguide. The according $\chi^{(2)}$ amounts to 3.7 pm/V, as retrieved from the measured conversion efficiency.

Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.03010

DOI: arXiv:1710.03010v2

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