3 years ago

DNA damage induced by topoisomerase inhibitors activates SAMHD1 and blocks HIV-1 infection of macrophages

DNA damage induced by topoisomerase inhibitors activates SAMHD1 and blocks HIV-1 infection of macrophages
Sarah J Caswell, Petra Mlcochova, Ravindra K Gupta, Ian A Taylor, Greg J Towers
We report that DNA damage induced by topoisomerase inhibitors, including etoposide (ETO), results in a potent block to HIV-1 infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). SAMHD1 suppresses viral reverse transcription (RT) through depletion of cellular dNTPs but is naturally switched off by phosphorylation in a subpopulation of MDM found in a G1-like state. We report that SAMHD1 was activated by dephosphorylation following ETO treatment, along with loss of expression of MCM2 and CDK1, and reduction in dNTP levels. Suppression of infection occurred after completion of viral DNA synthesis, at the step of 2LTR circle and provirus formation. The ETO-induced block was completely rescued by depletion of SAMHD1 in MDM. Concordantly, infection by HIV-2 and SIVsm encoding the SAMHD1 antagonist Vpx was insensitive to ETO treatment. The mechanism of DNA damage-induced blockade of HIV-1 infection involved activation of p53, p21, decrease in CDK1 expression, and SAMHD1 dephosphorylation. Therefore, topoisomerase inhibitors regulate SAMHD1 and HIV permissivity at a post-RT step, revealing a mechanism by which the HIV-1 reservoir may be limited by chemotherapeutic drugs. Dephosphorylation of the viral restriction factor SAMHD1 via a p53/p21-mediated pathway suggests that chemotherapeutic drugs could limit cellular HIV-1 reservoirs at a post-reverse transcription step.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.15252/embj.201796880

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.