Multifunctional carbon-coated magnetic sensing graphene oxide-cyclodextrin nanohybrid for potential cancer theranosis
We functionalized graphene oxide (GO) with cyclodextrin (CD) to increase the drug loading and cellular uptake of GO, and bound the GO-CD to carbon-coated iron nanoparticles (Fe@C) with superparamagnetic properties for potential magnetic-directed drug delivery and as a diagnostic agent. The GO-CD/Fe@C was loaded with an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), to form a multifunctional GO-CD/Fe@C/DOX nanohybrid. A cumulative increase in DOX loading was observed probably due to DOX adsorption to the graphitic domains in Fe@C and also to the GO-CD. In acidic pH that resembles the pH of the tumor environment, a higher amount of DOX was released from the GO-CD/Fe@C/DOX nanohybrid when compared to the amount released at physiological pH. The signal intensity and the contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging of Fe@C decreased with its concentration. Besides, the cellular uptake of GO-CD/Fe@C/DOX nanohybrid was significantly higher by 2.5-fold than that of Fe@C/DOX in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer model. The nanohybrids were internalized into the tumor cells via an energy-dependent process and localized mainly in the nuclei, where it exerts its cytotoxic effect, and some in the lysosomes and mitochondria. This has resulted in significant cytotoxicity in tumor cells treated with GO-CD/Fe@C/DOX. These findings highlight the potential use of multifunctional GO-CD/Fe@C nanohybrid for magnetic sensing anticancer drug delivery to tumor cells.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11051-017-4054-9
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