3 years ago

Pyruvate Kinase M2 Is Required for the Expression of the Immune Checkpoint PD-L1 in Immune Cells and Tumors.

Zbigniew Zasłona, Anne F McGettrick, Eva M Palsson-McDermott, Luke A O'Neill, Kingston H G Mills, Lydia Dyck, Deepthi Menon
Blocking interaction of the immune checkpoint receptor PD-1 with its ligand PD-L1 is associated with good clinical outcomes in a broad variety of malignancies. High levels of PD-L1 promote tumor growth by restraining CD8(+) T-cell responses against tumors. Limiting PD-L1 expression and function is therefore critical for allowing the development of antitumor immune responses and effective tumor clearance. Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is also a key player in regulating cancer as well as immune responses. PKM2 catalyzes the final rate-limiting step of glycolysis. Furthermore, PKM2 as a dimer translocates to the nucleus, where it stimulates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif-1α) transactivation domain function and recruitment of p300 to the hypoxia response elements (HRE) of Hif-1α target genes. Here, we provide the first evidence of a role for PKM2 in regulating the expression of PD-L1 on macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and tumor cells. LPS-induced expression of PD-L1 in primary macrophages was inhibited by the PKM2 targeting compound TEPP-46. Furthermore, RNA silencing of PKM2 inhibited LPS-induced PD-L1 expression. This regulation occurs through direct binding of PKM2 and Hif-1α to HRE sites on the PD-L1 promoter. Moreover, TEPP-46 inhibited expression of PD-L1 on macrophages, DCs, and T cells as well as tumor cells in a mouse CT26 cancer model. These findings broaden our understanding of how PKM2 may contribute to tumor progression and may explain the upregulation of PD-L1 in the tumor microenvironment.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01300

DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01300

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