3 years ago

Body composition is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with non–dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease

An inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality (the obesity paradox) has been found in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is unclear whether increased muscle mass or body fat confers the survival advantage. To resolve this we investigated the impact of body makeup on a composite outcome of death or cardiovascular events in a prospective cohort of 326 patients with stage 3–5 CKD not yet on dialysis. Lean mass and body fat were determined using the Body Composition Monitor, a multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy device, and were expressed as the lean tissue or fat tissue index, respectively. Patients were stratified as High (above median) or Low (below median) BMI, High or Low lean tissue index, or as High or Low fat tissue index. During a median follow-up of 4.6 years, there were 40 deaths and 68 cardiovascular events. In Cox proportional hazards models, a High lean tissue index, but not High BMI or High fat tissue index, predicted a lower risk of both the composite or its component outcomes (reference: below median). When patients were further stratified into four distinct body composition groups based on both the lean and fat tissue index, only the High lean/fat tissue index group had a significantly lower risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.87; reference: Low lean/fat tissue index group). Thus, the lean tissue index can provide better risk prediction than the BMI alone in non-dialysis-dependent patients with CKD. The High lean/fat tissue index appears to be associated with best outcomes. An optimal body composition for improving the prognosis of CKD needs to be determined.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0085253817306634

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