3 years ago

Predictors of first-line antiretroviral therapy failure amongst HIV-infected adult clients at Woldia Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

Fasil Walelign Fentaye, Yohannes Demissie Babo, Getahun Asres Alemie
Background

Due to the limited availability of viral load testing for treatment outcome monitoring in resource limited settings, identifying predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment failure will help in selecting clients who will benefit most from the targeted use of viral load monitoring. Little is known about the predictors of treatment failure in the study area. This study was conducted to determine factors that predict first-line antiretroviral therapy failure among HIV-infected adult clients at Woldia Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. For this study, antiretroviral therapy treatment failure was defined as the fulfillment of clinical and/or immunological criteria set by WHO.

Methods

Case-control study was carried out from November to December 2014. Cases were adult clients who were on failing first line regimen and on active follow up while controls were those adult clients on a non-failing first-line regimen for 36 months and above and on active follow up. Data was entered in to Epi Info version 7 and was exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of ART failure.

Results

A total of 59 cases and 245 controls were included in the analysis. Sixty three percent of the participants were females and the median age at ART enrollment was 33 years (IQR; 28, 40). The median baseline CD4count was not significantly different among cases and controls (105 (IQR = 60–174)vs.131 (IQR = 72.5–189.0); p = 0.301). The median peak CD4 count in the failure group (230 (IQR = 123–387)) was significantly low compared to the non-failure group (463 (IQR = 348.5–577)) [p < 0.001]. High peak CD4count (AOR = 0.993; 95% CI 0.990, 0.996) and longer duration on ART (AOR = 0.923; 95% CI 0.893, 0.954) were protective of treatment failure. In addition stavudine based regimen (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI 1.343, 10.555), low baseline BMI (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI 1.012, 7.457), unemployment (AOR = 4.93; 95% CI 1.493, 16.305) and formal educational level (AOR = 5.15; 95% CI 1.534, 17.276) were independently significant predictors of treatment failure.

Conclusions

In this setting low peak CD4count, shorter duration on first line ART, d4T based regimen, low baseline BMI, unemployment and formal educational level were significantly associated with increased treatment failure. Retaining patients on their initial first line regimen with appropriate follow up and improving their socioeconomic status through various livelihood initiatives should be strengthened.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187694

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.