3 years ago

De Novo Mutations in SLC25A24 Cause a Craniosynostosis Syndrome with Hypertrichosis, Progeroid Appearance, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

De Novo Mutations in SLC25A24 Cause a Craniosynostosis Syndrome with Hypertrichosis, Progeroid Appearance, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Peter Nürnberg, Namrata Saha, Uwe Kornak, Gökhan Yigit, Bernd Wollnik, Denise Horn, Friederike Hennig, Lukasz Smorag, Fernando Scaglia, Carlos A. Bacino, Peter M. Krawitz, Lara Segebrecht, Luitgard Graul-Neumann, Ulrike Krüger, Vera M. Kalscheuer, Esra Kilic, Markus Schuelke, Thorsten Mielke, Penelope E. Bonnen, Holger Thiele, Nicolai Adolphs, Nadja Ehmke, Christian Netzer, Jochen Hecht, Beatrix Fauler, Björn Fischer-Zirnsak, Rainer Koenig, Stefan Mundlos, Marten Jäger, Pilar Magoulas, Janine Altmüller, Anna F. Hennig

Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS) is a dysmorphic syndrome characterized by coronal craniosynostosis and severe midface hypoplasia, body and facial hypertrichosis, microphthalmia, short stature, and short distal phalanges. Variable lipoatrophy and cutis laxa are the basis for a progeroid appearance. Using exome and genome sequencing, we identified the recurrent de novo mutations c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) and c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) in SLC25A24 in five unrelated girls diagnosed with GCMS. Two of the girls had pronounced neonatal progeroid features and were initially diagnosed with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. SLC25A24 encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-Mg/Pi carrier. In fibroblasts from affected individuals, the mutated SLC25A24 showed normal stability. In contrast to control cells, the probands' cells showed mitochondrial swelling, which was exacerbated upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The same effect was observed after overexpression of the mutant cDNA. Under normal culture conditions, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the probands' fibroblasts was intact, whereas ATP content in the mitochondrial matrix was lower than that in control cells. However, upon H2O2 exposure, the membrane potential was significantly elevated in cells harboring the mutated SLC25A24. No reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed. These findings demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress is due to the SLC25A24 mutations. Our results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations induce a gain of pathological function and link mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi transport to the development of skeletal and connective tissue.

Publisher URL: http://www.cell.com/ajhg/fulltext/S0002-9297(17)30385-3

DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.016

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