3 years ago

Functional insights into the adjacent stem-loop in honey bee dicistroviruses that promotes IRES-mediated translation and viral infection.

Hilda H T Au, Valentina M Elspass, Eric Jan
All viruses must successfully harness the host translational apparatus and divert it towards viral protein synthesis. Dicistroviruses use an unusual internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mechanism whereby the IRES adopts a three-pseudoknot structure that accesses the ribosome tRNA binding sites to directly recruit the ribosome and initiate translation from a non-AUG start site. A subset of dicistroviruses, including the honey bee Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), encode an extra stem-loop (SLVI) 5' -adjacent to the IGR IRES. Previously, the function of this additional stem-loop is unknown. Here, we provide mechanistic and functional insights into the role of SLVI in IGR IRES translation and in virus infection. Biochemical analyses of a series of mutant IRESs demonstrated that SLVI does not function in ribosome recruitment but is required for proper ribosome positioning on the IRES to direct translation. Using a chimeric infectious clone derived from the related Cricket paralysis virus, we showed that the integrity of SLVI is important for optimal viral translation and viral yield. Based on structural models of ribosome-IGR IRES complexes, the SLVI is predicted to be in the vicinity of the ribosome E site. We propose that SLVI of IAPV IGR IRES functionally mimics interactions of an E-site tRNA with the ribosome to direct positioning of the tRNA-like domain of the IRES in the A site.IMPORTANCEViral internal ribosome entry sites are RNA elements and structures that allow some positive-sense monopartite RNA viruses to hijack the host ribosome to start viral protein synthesis. We demonstrate that a unique stem-loop structure is essential for optimal viral protein synthesis and for virus infection. Biochemical evidence shows that this viral stem-loop RNA structure impacts a fundamental property of the ribosome to start protein synthesis.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01725-17

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01725-17

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