Pharmacodynamics and proteomic analysis of acalabrutinib therapy: Similarity of on-target effects to ibrutinib and rationale for combination therapy
Acalabrutinib, a highly selective Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is associated with high overall response rates and durable remission in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), however, complete remissions were limited. To elucidate on-target and pharmacodynamic effects of acalabrutinib, we evaluated several laboratory endpoints, including proteomic changes, chemokine modulation, and impact on cell migration. Pharmacological profiling of samples from acalabrutinib-treated CLL patients was used to identify strategies for achieving deeper responses, and to identify additive/synergistic combination regimens. Peripheral blood samples from 21 patients with relapsed/refractory CLL in acalabrutinib phase I (100–400 mg/day) and II (100 mg BID) clinical trials were collected prior to and on days 8 and 28 after treatment initiation and evaluated for plasma chemokines, reverse phase protein array, immunoblotting, and pseudoemperipolesis. The on-target pharmacodynamic profile of acalabrutinib in CLL lymphocytes was comparable to ibrutinib in measures of acalabrutinib-mediated changes in CCL3/CCL4 chemokine production, migration assays, and changes in B cell receptor signaling pathway proteins and other downstream survival proteins. Among several CLL-targeted agents, venetoclax, when combined with acalabrutinib, showed optimal complementary activity in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo in TCL-1 adoptive transfer mouse model system of CLL. These findings support selective targeting and combinatorial potential of acalabrutinib.
Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/leu2017321
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