3 years ago

The complete mitochondrial genome of parasitic nematode Camallanus cotti: extreme discontinuity in the rate of mitogenomic architecture evolution within the Chromadorea class

The complete mitochondrial genome of parasitic nematode Camallanus cotti: extreme discontinuity in the rate of mitogenomic architecture evolution within the Chromadorea class
Wen-Xiang Li, Jin Zhang, Gui-Tang Wang, Ivan Jakovlić, Hong Zou, Dong Zhang, Rong Chen
Complete mitochondrial genomes are much better suited for the taxonomic identification and phylogenetic studies of nematodes than morphology or traditionally-used molecular markers, but they remain unavailable for the entire Camallanidae family (Chromadorea). As the only published mitogenome in the Camallanina suborder (Dracunculoidea superfamily) exhibited a unique gene order, the other objective of this research was to study the evolution of mitochondrial architecture in the Spirurida order. Thus, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of the Camallanus cotti fish parasite and conducted structural and phylogenomic comparative analyses with all available Spirurida mitogenomes. The mitogenome is exceptionally large (17,901 bp) among the Chromadorea and, with 46 (pseudo-) genes, exhibits a unique architecture among nematodes. Six protein-coding genes (PCGs) and six tRNAs are duplicated. An additional (seventh) tRNA (Trp) was probably duplicated by the remolding of tRNA-Ser2 (missing). Two pairs of these duplicated PCGs might be functional; three were incomplete and one contained stop codons. Apart from Ala and Asp, all other duplicated tRNAs are conserved and probably functional. Only 19 unique tRNAs were found. Phylogenomic analysis included Gnathostomatidae (Spirurina) in the Camallanina suborder. Within the Nematoda, comparable PCG duplications were observed only in the enoplean Mermithidae family, but those result from mitochondrial recombination, whereas characteristics of the studied mitogenome suggest that likely rearrangement mechanisms are either a series of duplications, transpositions and random loss events, or duplication, fragmentation and subsequent reassembly of the mitogenome. We put forward a hypothesis that the evolution of mitogenomic architecture is extremely discontinuous, and that once a long period of stasis in gene order and content has been punctuated by a rearrangement event, such a destabilised mitogenome is much more likely to undergo subsequent rearrangement events, resulting in an exponentially accelerated evolutionary rate of mitogenomic rearrangements. Implications of this model are particularly important for the application of gene order similarity as an additive source of phylogenetic information. Chromadorean nematodes, and particularly Camallanina clade (with C. cotti as an example of extremely accelerated rate of rearrangements), might be a good model to further study this discontinuity in the dynamics of mitogenomic evolution.
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