Multiple mechanisms mediating carbon monoxide inhibition of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.5
The voltage-gated K+ channel has key roles in the vasculature and in atrial excitability and contributes to apoptosis in various tissues. In this study, we have explored its regulation by carbon monoxide (CO), a product of the cytoprotective heme oxygenase enzymes, and a recognized toxin. CO inhibited recombinant Kv1.5 expressed in HEK293 cells in a concentration-dependent manner that involved multiple signalling pathways. CO inhibition was partially reversed by superoxide dismutase mimetics and by suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. CO also elevated intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels. Prevention of NO formation also partially reversed CO inhibition of Kv1.5, as did inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase. CO also elevated intracellular peroxynitrite levels, and a peroxynitrite scavenger markedly attenuated the ability of CO to inhibit Kv1.5. CO caused nitrosylation of Kv1.5, an effect that was also observed in C331A and C346A mutant forms of the channel, which had previously been suggested as nitrosylation sites within Kv1.5. Augmentation of Kv1.5 via exposure to hydrogen peroxide was fully reversed by CO. Native Kv1.5 recorded in HL-1 murine atrial cells was also inhibited by CO. Action potentials recorded in HL-1 cells were increased in amplitude and duration by CO, an effect mimicked and occluded by pharmacological inhibition of Kv1.5. Our data indicate that Kv1.5 is a target for modulation by CO via multiple mechanisms. This regulation has important implications for diverse cellular functions, including excitability, contractility and apoptosis.
Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/cddis2017568
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