4 years ago

Redox-Active Macrocycles for Organic Rechargeable Batteries

Redox-Active Macrocycles for Organic Rechargeable Batteries
Michael T. Otley, Keith R. Hermann, Aleksandrs Prokofjevs, J. Fraser Stoddart, Dong Jun Kim, Cristian Pezzato, Magdalena Owczarek
Organic rechargeable batteries, composed of redox-active molecules, are emerging as candidates for the next generation of energy storage materials because of their large specific capacities, cost effectiveness, and the abundance of organic precursors, when compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Although redox-active molecules often display multiple redox states, precise control of a molecule’s redox potential, leading to a single output voltage in a battery, remains a fundamental challenge in this popular field of research. By combining macrocyclic chemistry with density functional theory calculations (DFT), we have identified a structural motif that more effectively delocalizes electrons during lithiation events in battery operations—namely, through-space electron delocalization in triangular macrocyclic molecules that exhibit a single well-defined voltage profile—compared to the discrete multiple voltage plateaus observed for a homologous macrocyclic dimer and an acyclic derivative of pyromellitic diimide (PMDI). The triangular macrocycle, incorporating three PMDI units in close proximity to one another, exhibits a single output voltage at 2.33 V, compared with two peaks at (i) 2.2 and 1.95–1.60 V for reduction and (ii) 1.60–1.95 and 2.37 V for oxidation of the acyclic PMDI derivative. By investigating the two cyclic derivatives with different conformational dispositions of their PMDI units and the acyclic PMDI derivative, we identified noticeable changes in interactions between the PMDI units in the two cyclic derivatives under reducing conditions, as determined by differential pulse voltammetry, solution-state spectroelectrochemistry, and variable-temperature UV–Vis spectra. The numbers and relative geometries of the PMDI units are found to alter the voltage profile of the active materials significantly during galvanostatic measurements, resulting in a desirable single plateau for the triangular macrocycle. The present investigation reveals that understanding and controlling the relative conformational dispositions of redox-active units in macrocycles are key to achieving high energy density and long cycle-life electrodes for organic rechargeable batteries.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b01209

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b01209

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.