QCD-inequality analyses on pion condensate at real and imaginary isospin chemical potentials under finite imaginary quark chemical potential.
By employing QCD inequalities, we discuss appearance of the pion condensate for both real and imaginary isospin chemical potentials, taking also into account imaginary quark chemical potential. We show that the charged pion can condense for real isospin chemical potential, but not for imaginary one. Furthermore, we evaluate the expectation value of the neutral-pion field for imaginary isospin chemical potential by using framework of the twisted mass. As a result, it is found that the expectation value becomes zero for the finite current-quark mass, whereas the Banks-Casher relation is obtained in the massless limit.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.00663
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