3 years ago

Optimization of a hydrometric network extension using specific flow, kriging and simulated annealing

In hydrometric stations, water levels are continuously observed and discharge rating curves are constantly updated to achieve accurate river levels and discharge observations. An adequate spatial distribution of hydrological gauging stations presents a lot of interest in linkage with the river regime characterization, water infrastructures design, water resources management and ecological survey. Due to the increase of riverside population and the associated flood risk, hydrological networks constantly need to be developed. This paper suggests taking advantage of kriging approaches to improve the design of a hydrometric network. The context deals with the application of an optimization approach using ordinary kriging and simulated annealing (SA) in order to identify the best locations to install new hydrometric gauges. The task at hand is to extend an existing hydrometric network in order to estimate, at ungauged sites, the average specific annual discharge which is a key basin descriptor. This methodology is developed for the hydrometric network of the transboundary Medjerda River in the North of Tunisia. A Geographic Information System (GIS) is adopted to delineate basin limits and centroids. The latter are adopted to assign the location of basins in kriging development. Scenarios where the size of an existing 12 stations network is alternatively increased by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 new station(s) are investigated using geo-regression and minimization of the variance of kriging errors. The analysis of the optimized locations from a scenario to another shows a perfect conformity with respect to the location of the new sites. The new locations insure a better spatial coverage of the study area as seen with the increase of both the average and the maximum of inter-station distances after optimization. The optimization procedure selects the basins that insure the shifting of the mean drainage area towards higher specific discharges.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0022169417307527

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