3 years ago

Mononuclear gold(III) complexes with phenanthroline ligands as efficient inhibitors of angiogenesis: A comparative study with auranofin and sunitinib

Mononuclear gold(III) complexes with phenanthroline ligands as efficient inhibitors of angiogenesis: A comparative study with auranofin and sunitinib
Gold(III) complexes with 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthroline ligands, [AuCl3(1,7-phen-κN7)] (1) and [AuCl3(4,7-phen-κN4)] (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR and UV–vis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In these complexes, 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthrolines are monodentatedly coordinated to the Au(III) ion through the N7 and N4 nitrogen atoms, respectively. In comparison to the clinically relevant anti-angiogenic compounds auranofin and sunitinib, gold(III)-phenanthroline complexes showed from 1.5- to 20-fold higher anti-angiogenic potential, and 13- and 118-fold lower toxicity. Among the tested compounds, complex 1 was the most potent and may be an excellent anti-angiogenic drug candidate, since it showed strong anti-angiogenic activity in zebrafish embryos achieving IC50 value (concentration resulting in an anti-angiogenic phenotype at 50% of embryos) of 2.89μM, while had low toxicity with LC50 value (the concentration inducing the lethal effect of 50% embryos) of 128μM. Molecular docking study revealed that both complexes and ligands could suppress angiogenesis targeting the multiple major regulators of angiogenesis, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2), the matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1), where the complexes showed higher binding affinity in comparison to ligands, and particularly to auranofin, but comparable to sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic drug of clinical relevance.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S016201341730301X

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