3 years ago

Cognitive Impairment and Overall Survival in Frail Surgical Patients

The definition of frailty, as modeled by the Fried criteria, has been limited primarily to the physical domain. The purpose of this study was to assess the additive value of cognitive function with existing frailty criteria to predict poor postoperative outcomes in a large multidisciplinary cohort of patients undergoing major operations. Study Design A 4-level composite frailty scoring system was created via the combination of the Fried frailty score and the Emory Clock Draw Test to assess preoperative frailty and cognitive impairment, respectively. Overall survival was defined as months from date of operation to date of death or last follow-up. Results This study included 330 patients undergoing major operations; mean age was 58 years and a total of 53 patient deaths occurred during 4-year follow-up. Among the robust cohort, 20 of 168 patients died (11.9%), and among those who were both physically frail and cognitively impaired, 11 of 26 patients died (42.3%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated the physically frail and cognitively impaired cohort to have a 3.92 higher risk of death (95% CI 1.66 to 9.26) compared with the cohort of robust patients (p = 0.002). Kaplan-Meier survival curves reveal an overall difference in long-term survival (log-rank p < 0.0001), driven mainly by the high risk of mortality among patients with both physical frailty and cognitive impairment. Conclusions The use of a combined frailty and cognitive assessment score has a more powerful potential to predict adult patients at higher risk of overall survival than either measurement alone. The addition of cognitive assessment to physical frailty measure can lead to improved preoperative decision making and possibly early intervention, as well as more accurate patient counseling.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1072751517317052

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