3 years ago

Faradaic reactions in capacitive deionization (CDI) - problems and possibilities: A review

Faradaic reactions in capacitive deionization (CDI) - problems and possibilities: A review
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is considered to be one of the most promising technologies for the desalination of brackish water with low to medium salinity. In practical applications, Faradaic redox reactions occurring in CDI may have both negative and positive effects on CDI performance. In this review, we present an overview of the types and mechanisms of Faradaic reactions in CDI systems including anodic oxidation of carbon electrodes, cathodic reduction of oxygen and Faradaic ion storage and identify their apparent negative and positive effects on water desalination. A variety of strategies including development of novel electrode materials and use of alternative configurations and/or operational modes are proposed for the purpose of mitigation or elimination of the deterioration of electrodes and the formation of byproducts caused by undesired side Faradaic reactions. It is also recognized that Faradaic reactions facilitate a variety of exciting new applications including i) the incorporation of intercalation electrodes to enhance water desalination or to selectively separate certain ions through reversible Faradaic reactions and ii) the use of particular anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction reactions to realize functions such as water disinfection and contaminant removal.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0043135417308527

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