3 years ago

True Vapor–Liquid–Solid Process Suppresses Unintentional Carrier Doping of Single Crystalline Metal Oxide Nanowires

True Vapor–Liquid–Solid Process Suppresses Unintentional Carrier Doping of Single Crystalline Metal Oxide Nanowires
Takeshi Yanagida, Katsuichi Kanemoto, Tsunaki Takahashi, Zetao Zhu, Guozhu Zhang, Mickaël Boudot, Masaru Suzuki, Naoya Shibata, Takehito Seki, Yong He, Kazuki Nagashima, Masaki Kanai, Hiroshi Anzai
Single crystalline nanowires composed of semiconducting metal oxides formed via a vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) process exhibit an electrical conductivity even without an intentional carrier doping, although these stoichiometric metal oxides are ideally insulators. Suppressing this unintentional doping effect has been a challenging issue not only for metal oxide nanowires but also for various nanostructured metal oxides toward their semiconductor applications. Here we demonstrate that a pure VLS crystal growth, which occurs only at liquid–solid (LS) interface, substantially suppresses an unintentional doping of single crystalline SnO2 nanowires. By strictly tailoring the crystal growth interface of VLS process, we found the gigantic difference of electrical conduction (up to 7 orders of magnitude) between nanowires formed only at LS interface and those formed at both LS and vapor–solid (VS) interfaces. On the basis of investigations with spatially resolved single nanowire electrical measurements, plane-view electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal the gigantic suppression of unintentional carrier doping only for the crystal grown at LS interface due to the higher annealing effect at LS interface compared with that grown at VS interface. These implications will be a foundation to design the semiconducting properties of various nanostructured metal oxides.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01362

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01362

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