3 years ago

Estimation of the effects of selection on French Large White sow and piglet performance during the suckling period.

Y Billon, J Gogué, J P Bidanel, T Tribout, P Silalahi
The effects of 21 yr of selection were estimated for sow and piglet performance during the suckling period in a French Large White (LW) pig population using frozen semen. Two experimental groups (EXP = L77 and L98) were produced by inseminating LW sows with either stored frozen semen from 17 LW boars born in 1977 (EXP = L77) or with fresh semen from 23 LW boars born in 1998 (EXP = L98). Seventy-four L77 and 89 L98 randomly chosen females were mated to 15 L77 and 15 L98, respectively, randomly chosen boars for 6 successive parities. They produced 2,796 L77 progeny (G77) and 3,529 L98 progeny (G98) piglets including stillbirths. To disentangle direct and maternal effects on piglet growth, a 2 × 2 factorial design was set by cross-fostering half-litters across genetic groups the day after farrowing, resulting in mixed G77/G98 litters nursed by either L77 or L98 sows. Piglet traits investigated included individual weight at birth (IWB), at 21 d of age (IW21d), and at weaning at 4 wk of age (IWW) and ADG from birth to 21 d of age (ADG21d) and from birth to weaning (ADGBW) as well as probability of stillbirth, probability of mortality on the first day after farrowing and from d 2 to weaning. Sow traits analyzed included weight before farrowing and at weaning, feed intake, milk production, colostrum, and milk composition. The variability of performance across genetic groups and litters was also investigated. The data were analyzed using generalized (piglet mortality) or linear mixed models (other traits). Results showed an increase in IWB (+240 ± 72 g in 21 yr for IWB adjusted for total number born), and a negative maternal genetic trend was observed on piglet growth during the suckling period (e.g., +33 ± 13 g/d in 21 yr for ADG21d, that is, 14% of the mean), whereas direct genetic effects remained unchanged. Piglets from L98 litters also had a 40% larger probability of being stillborn and a 28% larger probability of dying on d 1 and had a more heterogeneous IWB (358 vs. 336 g; < 0.001) and growth during the suckling period (60 vs. 56 g/d; < 0.001). Sows from L77 and L98 experimental groups did not differ in weight, feed intake, colostrum, and milk composition. These results give evidence of negative correlated effects of selection for piglet traits related to robustness. These adverse effects are at least partly of maternal origin.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.2527/jas2017.1485

DOI: 10.2527/jas2017.1485

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