3 years ago

Chromium, CLA, and ractopamine for finishing pigs.

M L T Abreu, A Saraiva, G C Rocha, M S Duarte, N V L Serão, S V Ferreira, C S Marcolla, D M Holanda
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium, CLA, and ractopamine on performance, carcass traits, and pork quality of finishing pigs slaughtered at 115 kg BW. Ninety-six crossbred barrows (initial BW = 70.21 ± 1.98 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. There were 8 replicates per treatment (48 pens; 2 pigs/pen). A diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements was used as the control (CON). The other 5 diets were based on the CON and supplemented as follows: 0.4 mg/kg Cr yeast (CrY); 0.5% CLA; 0.4 mg/kg CrY and 0.5% CLA (CrY + CLA); 20 mg/kg ractopamine (RAC); 0.4 mg/kg CrY and 20 mg/kg RAC (CrY + RAC). Lysine levels on diets containing ractopamine were raised by 20% compared to CON to meet the greater requirements of pigs fed ractopamine. Pigs fed RAC and CrY + RAC were fed CON for the first 17 d, and then the respective diets for the last 28 d on trial. Data were analyzed in a model including the fixed effect of treatment (6 levels) and initial BW as a covariate for all characteristics, with the exception of carcass traits, in which final BW was used as a covariate. Least-squares means were separated using Tukey-Kramer's method. Differences were considered when probability values were lower than 0.05. Pigs fed RAC and CrY + RAC had the greatest ( < 0.001) final BW and ADG. Pigs fed CrY + RAC had greater ( < 0.001) G:F than pigs within the other groups, except for those fed RAC. Pigs fed CrY + RAC and RAC had similar G:F, both greater ( < 0.001) than pigs fed CON. Average daily feed intake was similar ( = 0.83) for all diets. Pigs fed CrY + RAC had greater LM area ( = 0.01) and carcass yield ( < 0.02) than pigs fed CON, CrY, CLA, and CrY + CLA. Loin muscle area and carcass yield of pigs fed RAC were not different from pigs fed the others diets. Pigs fed CON diets had greater BF ( = 0.02) than pigs fed CLA diet. Additives did not affect ( > 0.05) pork quality, except for color. No differences ( > 0.05) were observed for carcasses pH and temperature. The values for pigs fed RAC were greater ( = 0.01) than pigs fed other diets. Pigs fed RAC had lower ( < 0.01) values compared to pigs fed other experimental diets. Serum urea nitrogen concentration (SUN) was lower ( = 0.02) in pigs fed CrY + RAC than in pigs fed CON and RAC and similar to pigs fed the other feeding additives. In summary, it was demonstrated that, when combined, CrY and RAC increase LM area and carcass yield, and reduce SUN, suggesting that chromium could improve nutrient utilization by muscle cells in RAC-fed pigs. Additionally, the additives have no major effects on pork quality.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.2527/jas2017.1753

DOI: 10.2527/jas2017.1753

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