3 years ago

Infinite Range Correlations in Non-Equilibrium Quantum Systems and Their Possible Experimental Realizations.

Zohar Nussinov

We consider systems that start from and/or end in thermodynamic equilibrium while experiencing a finite rate of change of their energy density or of other intensive quantities $q$ at intermediate times. We demonstrate that at these times, during which the global intensive quantities $q$ vary, the size of the associated covariance, the connected pair correlator $|G_{ij}| = |\langle q_{i} q_{j} \rangle - \langle q_{i} \rangle \langle q_{j} \rangle|$, between any two (arbitrarily far separated) sites $i$ and $j$ is, on average, finite. This non-vanishing character of the connected correlations for asymptotically distant sites also applies to theories with purely local interactions. In simple models, these correlations may be traced to the generic volume law entanglement of finite temperature states. Once the global mean of $q$ no longer changes, the average of $|G_{ij}|$ over all spatial separations $|i-j|$ may tend to zero. However, when the equilibration times are significant (e.g., as in a glass that is not in true thermodynamic equilibrium yet in which the energy density (or temperature) reaches a final steady state value), these long range correlations may persist also long after $q$ ceases to change. We briefly discuss possible experimental implications of our findings and speculate on their potential realization in glasses (where a prediction of a theory based on the effect that we describe here suggests a universal collapse of the viscosity that agrees with all published viscosity measurements) and non-Fermi liquids.

Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.06710

DOI: arXiv:1710.06710v3

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