3 years ago

Laparoscopic Nerve-Preserving Sacropexy

To demonstrate our developed nerve-preserving technique during laparoscopic sacropexy (LSP) for multicompartment pelvic organ prolapse. Design A step-by-step demonstration of our surgical procedure on video (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Informed consent was obtained from the subject, and the applicable Institutional Review Board provided approval. Setting Although sacropexy does remain the ‘gold standard’ procedure for apical prolapse [1], the subjective outcome of the procedure has been reported to be not so satisfactory as its anatomic outcome [2]. New onset bowel symptoms have been observed with voiding and sexual dysfunctions [3]. Published data revealed a correlation between iatrogenic denervation during LSP and postoperative dysfunctions [4-6]. We adopted a nerve-preserving approach with the aim of reducing the iatrogenic morbidity. Interventions Our surgical nerve-preserving LSP technique from the promontory down to the right uterosacral ligament and the rectovaginal space proceeds in 3 steps: Step 1: Opening the peritoneum. The peritoneum is opened just medial to the right common iliac artery, approximately 20 to 30 mm above the sacral promontory, allowing a safe approach in an area far from nerves and vascular structures. Peritoneal incision is extended toward the promontory. The underlying presacral fascia containing the right hypogastric nerve (rHN) is identified and incised longitudinally. The presacral fascia and the rHN are then pushed medially to expose the longitudinal anterior vertebral ligament; the finding of the middle sacral veins represents the limit of any further medial dissection. Opening and displacement of the prevertebral fascia are not mandatory. Step 2: Opening the peritoneum of the right pelvic sidewall, respecting the integrity of the presacral fascia and of the rHN contained within it. An inverted L-shaped peritoneal incision extending from the sacral promontory up to the left uterosacral ligament is completed, with care taken to preserve the rHN identified previously. In proximity to the uterus, the dissection line crosses the upper edge of the right uterosacral ligament at its proximal third and extends medially. The rectovaginal space is opened and joined to the peritoneal tunnel with a section of the superficial layer of the right uterosacral ligament, preserving its deep nervous portion. Step 3: Dissection of the rectovaginal space, respecting the integrity of the rectal fascia. The rectovaginal space is fully dissected, and at its caudal edge the dissection is carried out laterally to the rectum upward to identify the pelvic parietal fascia covering the levator ani muscle, in the middle to the cranial edge of the perineal body. Preservation of the rectal fascia prevents possible injury to the middle rectal vessels and the rectal branches of the inferior hypogastric plexus, which runs close to the pelvic floor. The complete dissection of the rectovaginal space appears in an inverted V-shaped space covering approximately two-thirds of the posterior vaginal wall, with the apex at the convergence of the uterosacral ligaments. The procedure is completed with dissection of the vesicovaginal space through the creation of an avascular triangular-shaped space with the apex at the dorsal end of the bladder trigone and laterally limited by the superficial vascular layer of the vesicouterine ligaments. The bladder branches of the inferior hypogastric plexus run far from the surgical field in the deep portion of the vesicouterine ligaments.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1553465017302170

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