3 years ago

Regional cerebral blood flow in opiate dependence relates to substance use and neuropsychological performance

Regional cerebral blood flow in opiate dependence relates to substance use and neuropsychological performance
Dieter J. Meyerhoff, Christoph Abé, Troy A. Murray, Thomas P. Schmidt, Timothy C. Durazzo, Joseph Guydish, Donna E. Murray
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals. Continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging at 4 T and neuropsychological measures assessed absolute brain perfusion levels, cognition and self-regulation in 18 cigarette smoking opiate-dependent individuals (sODI) stable on buprenorphine maintenance therapy. The sODI were compared with 20 abstinent smoking alcohol-dependent individuals (a substance-dependent control group), 35 smoking controls and 29 nonsmoking controls. sODI had lower perfusion in several cortical and subcortical regions including regions within the brain reward/executive oversight system compared with smoking alcohol-dependent individuals and nonsmoking controls. Perfusion was increased in anterior cingulate cortex and globus pallidus of sODI. Compared with all other groups, sODI had greater age-related declines in perfusion in most brain reward/executive oversight system and some other regions. In sODI, lower regional perfusion related to greater substance use, higher impulsivity and weaker visuospatial skills. Overall, sODI showed cortical and subcortical hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion. Relating to neuropsychological performance and substance use quantities, the frontal perfusion alterations are clinically relevant and constitute potential targets for pharmacological and cognitive-based therapeutic interventions to improve treatment outcome in opiate dependence. Regional brain perfusion in opiate dependent individuals (sODI) was measured with arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Perfusion was increased in anterior cingulate cortex and globus pallidus of sODI. sODI had greater age-related declines in perfusion in most brain reward/executive oversight system regions than control groups (smokers and non-smokers) and a substance-dependent control group. In sODI, lower regional perfusion was related to greater substance use, higher impulsivity, and weaker visuospatial skills. Overall, sODI showed cortical and subcortical hypo-perfusion and hyperperfusion.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/adb.12523

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