3 years ago

Factors associated with naloxone administration in an opioid dependent sample

Naloxone is a safe and effective antidote for reversing opioid overdose. Layperson administration of naloxone is increasingly common, yet little is known about demographic and clinical factors associated with opioid users' likelihood of having administered naloxone to another opioid user who had overdosed. We examined predictors of reported naloxone administration in the past year. Methods Four hundred and sixty-eight patients were interviewed upon admission to brief, inpatient opioid detoxification between May and December of 2015. Between group differences were tested using t-tests for differences in means and χ2-tests for differences in counts. Results Participants averaged 32years of age, 28.9% were female, and 86.8% were White. Most (86.8%) reported detoxifying from heroin, 69.0% had injected drugs in the last 30days. One sixth (n =68) of those detoxifying from heroin, but none of those detoxifying from other opioids (n =62) had administered naloxone in the past year. Among the small number of Black/African American participants (n =20), none had administered naloxone, although 90% were heroin users. Respondents were more likely to have administered naloxone if they reported recent injection drug use (IDU), had a history of overdose, or witnessed an overdose in the past year (ps<0.05), even though less than one-third of bystanders of overdose reported administering naloxone. Conclusions Higher opioid-related mortality risk (heroin use, IDU, past overdose) was associated with greater likelihood of reported naloxone administration in the past year. The non-use of naloxone among certain groups—prescription pill users and Blacks—was unexpected.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S074054721730301X

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