3 years ago

Factors associated with attrition in substance using patients enrolled in an intensive outpatient program

Nicholas Carrellas, James Mckowen, Ronna Fried, Courtney Zulauf, Timothy Wilens, Emin Nalan Ward
Background and Objectives Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of attrition from treatment and exhibit impairments on measures of executive functioning (EF). The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if EF is associated with attrition from a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD, and examine the feasibility of implementing the project. Methods Baseline neurocognitive functioning was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the self-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A) questionnaire. Results Thirty subjects enrolled in the pilot study: including 20 “completers” (age 39.5 ± 13.1 years) and 10 “drop-outs” who discontinued the IOP prior to completion (age 32 ± 11.1 years). IOP drop-out was associated with earlier age of substance use onset (all p-values <0.05) and male gender, as well as greater SUD, opiate use, and past week substance use. Overall a high level of executive dysfunction was found on the BRIEF-A and CANTAB assessments, and specific differences emerged between completers and drop outs. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these groups on measures of depression, anxiety, or ADHD. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Overall, findings from this pilot study suggest high levels of self-reported executive dysfunction, but EF's predictive association with drop-out was limited. Measures of addiction severity were more strongly associated with attrition, suggesting potential utility of brief motivational interventions prior to commencing an IOP may improve retention. Further investigations with larger and more diverse samples are warranted. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–8)

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12619

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