3 years ago

Testing the nicotine dependence measure mFTQ for adolescent smokers: A multinational investigation

Punyarat Lapvongwatana, Jose P. Espada, Abha Tewari, Xinguang Chen, Maria T. Gonzálvez, Natkamol Chansatitporn, Salma K. Marani, Hong Zheng, Alexander V. Prokhorov, Richard Isralowitz, Monika Arora, Artur Galimov, Bulat Idrisov, Dawn W. Foster, Georges E. Khalil, Steve Sussman, Michele Guindani
Background and Objectives As a measure of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers, the modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ; seven items), has been successfully used in the United States (USA). Nonetheless, the validity and reliability of mFTQ at the international level is still needed. The current study is the first to test the validity and reliability of mFTQ in four countries: Thailand, Spain, the USA, and Russia. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, mFTQ, risk factors of nicotine dependence, and sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Risk factors included age of first cigarette, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of marijuana use, and number of cigarettes smoked yesterday. Salivary cotinine was also obtained in Thailand and Spain. Results For all four countries, mFTQ exhibited a single factor structure, as supported by previous work in the USA. For all studied countries except Thailand, mFTQ presented acceptable internal reliability. Overall, risk factors of nicotine dependence have predicted mFTQ scores across countries. Frequency of alcohol use in the USA and frequency of marijuana use in Thailand and Spain were not associated with mFTQ scores. Discussion and Conclusions mFTQ is a single-factor measure of nicotine dependence that shows acceptable internal consistency and validity across countries. Further work can advance the scale and tailor it to different cultures. Scientific Significance mFTQ can be a clinically practical international measure of nicotine dependence. This study provides initial support for the utility of the mFTQ among Thai, Spanish, American, and Russian adolescents. Further research is needed to test and advance mFTQ across cultures. (Am J Addict 2017;26:689–696)

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12583

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