Dietary Intake Among Opioid- and Alcohol-Using Pregnant Women
Background: Substance abuse in nonpregnant adults has been associated with increased intake in calories and decreased intake of nutrient-dense foods; however, studies examining dietary intake in opioid-using and alcohol-using pregnant women are lacking. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary intake in opioid-using pregnant women with or without concurrent light-to-moderate alcohol use as compared to abstaining controls. Methods: This prospective birth cohort included 102 pregnant women classified into four study groups: controls (n = 27), medication-assisted treatment (MAT; n = 26), alcohol (ALC; n = 22), and concurrent use of both substances (MAT + ALC; n = 27). Percentage differences in macro- and micronutrient intake were estimated from the food frequency questionnaire and compared among the study groups. Proportions of participants with intakes below the estimated average requirements (EAR) based on diet and diet with supplements were estimated. Results: Three exposed groups had lower prevalence of multivitamin use in periconceptional period (11.5–31.8%) than controls (44.4%). Unadjusted mean energy intake was significantly higher in the MAT + ALC group compared to controls, while micronutrient intake per 1000 kcal was the highest in the control group for almost all of the micronutrients analyzed. After adjustment for energy intake and sociodemographic characteristics, MAT group had lower estimated dietary intake of iron (−15.0%, p = 0.04) and folate (−16.8%, p = 0.04) compared to controls. A high proportion of participants in all study groups had dietary intake below the EAR for vitamin E, iron, and folate. Conclusion: Results highlight the need for targeted dietary interventions for opioid-using pregnant women.