3 years ago

Sex Differences in Select Non-communicable HIV-Associated Comorbidities: Exploring the Role of Systemic Immune Activation/Inflammation

Kathleen V. Fitch, Dodie E. Rimmelin, Markella V. Zanni, Avanthi Raghavan


Purpose of the Review

The goals of this review are to (1) explore HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), neurocognitive impairment, and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC) as heterogeneous model disease states fuelled in part by systemic immune activation/inflammation; (2) consider sex differences in the epidemiology of these diseases in both high-resource and lower-resource settings; and (3) examine biological and environmental factors which may contribute to heightened systemic immune activation/inflammation specifically among women living with HIV (WLHIV).

Recent Findings

The observation that WLHIV have higher levels of systemic immune activation/inflammation than men living with HIV (MLHIV) may be relevant to sex differences in select non-communicable HIV-associated comorbidities. Heightened systemic immune activation among WLHIV may be influenced by sex-specific responses to the virus and to immunomodulatory agents, as well as by behavioral choices/comorbid conditions and perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.


Additional research is needed to elucidate region-specific drivers of heightened systemic immune activation/inflammation among WLHIV and to determine whether WLHIV who present with one immune-mediated HIV-associated comorbidity (e.g., cognitive impairment) may be at increased risk for another (e.g., CVD, NADC). This kind of research would facilitate improved risk prediction for non-communicable HIV-associated comorbidities among WLHIV and the development of targeted immunomodulatory prevention strategies.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11904-017-0366-8

DOI: 10.1007/s11904-017-0366-8

You might also like
Never Miss Important Research

Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.