3 years ago

A multiplex competitive ELISA for the detection and characterization of gluten in fermented-hydrolyzed foods

Marc Boyer, Rakhi Panda, Eric A. E. Garber

Abstract

A novel competitive ELISA was developed utilizing the G12, R5, 2D4, MIoBS, and Skerritt antibody-HRP conjugates employed in nine commercial ELISA test kits that are routinely used for gluten detection. This novel multiplex competitive ELISA simultaneously measures gliadin-, deamidated gliadin-, and glutenin-specific epitopes. The assay was used to evaluate 20 wheat beers, 20 barley beers, 6 barley beers processed to reduce gluten, 15 soy sauces, 6 teriyaki sauces, 6 Worcestershire sauces, 6 vinegars, and 8 sourdough breads. For wheat beers, the apparent gluten concentration values obtained by the G12 and Skerritt antibodies were typically higher than those obtained using the R5 antibodies. The sourdough bread samples resulted in higher apparent gluten concentration values with the Skerritt antibody, while the values generated by the G12 and R5 antibodies were comparable. Although the soy-based sauces showed non-specific inhibition with the multiple R5 and G12 antibodies, their overall profile was distinguishable from the other categories of fermented foods. Cluster analysis of the apparent gluten concentration values obtained by the multiplex competitive ELISA, as well as the relative response of the nine gluten-specific antibodies used in the assay to different gluten proteins/peptides, distinguishes among the different categories of fermented-hydrolyzed foods by recognizing the differences in the protein/peptide profiles characteristic of each product. This novel gluten-based multiplex competitive ELISA provides insight into the extent of proteolysis resulting from various fermentation processes, which is essential for accurate gluten quantification in fermented-hydrolyzed foods.

Graphical abstract

A novel multiplex competitive ELISA for the detection and characterization of gluten in fermented-hydrolyzed foods.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00216-017-0677-z

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0677-z

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