5 years ago

Elucidating the Irreversible Mechanism and Voltage Hysteresis in Conversion Reaction for High-Energy Sodium–Metal Sulfide Batteries

Elucidating the Irreversible Mechanism and Voltage Hysteresis in Conversion Reaction for High-Energy Sodium–Metal Sulfide Batteries
Liguang Wang, Jiajun Wang, Christopher Eng, Jun Wang
Irreversible electrochemical behavior and large voltage hysteresis are commonly observed in battery materials, in particular for materials reacting through conversion reaction, resulting in undesirable round-trip energy loss and low coulombic efficiency. Seeking solutions to these challenges relies on the understanding of the underlying mechanism and physical origins. Here, this study combines in operando 2D transmission X-ray microscopy with X-ray absorption near edge structure, 3D tomography, and galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques to uncover the conversion reaction in sodium–metal sulfide batteries, a promising high-energy battery system. This study shows a high irreversible electrochemistry process predominately occurs at first cycle, which can be largely linked to Na ion trapping during the first desodiation process and large interfacial ion mobility resistance. Subsequently, phase transformation evolution and electrochemical reaction show good reversibility at multiple discharge/charge cycles due to materials' microstructural change and equilibrium. The origin of large hysteresis between discharge and charge is investigated and it can be attributed to multiple factors including ion mobility resistance at the two-phase interface, intrinsic slow sodium ion diffusion kinetics, and irreversibility as well as ohmic voltage drop and overpotential. This study expects that such understandings will help pave the way for engineering design and optimization of materials microstructure for future-generation batteries. Combining in operando synchrotron hard X-ray microscopy with X-ray absorption technique, the irreversible mechanism and large voltage hysteresis in conversion reaction for sodium–metal sulfide batteries is comprehensively elucidated, potentially guiding us in optimization and design of advanced materials with improved performance.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201602706

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