Nick Wareham, Tilman Kühn, Maria Kritikou, Martin Almquist, Salvatore Panico, Jody M.W. van den Ouweland, Weimin Ye, Kim Overvad, Arnulf Langhammer, Elio Riboli, María-José Sánchez, Claudia Agnoli, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Eivind Ness-Jensen, Anouk Halfweeg, Miren Dorronsoro, Anne Tjønneland, Marina Kvaskoff, Rosario Tumino, Aurelio Barricarte, Anastasia Kotanidou, Verena A. Katzke, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Claire Cadeau, Petra Peeters, Peter D. Siersema, Domenico Palli, Anja Olsen, Eric J. Duell, Kay-Tee Khaw, Giuseppe Matullo, Magritt Brustad, Teresa Norat, Elisabete Weiderpass, Cristina Lasheras, Ellen Kampman, Kristian Hveem, Heinz Freisling, Mireia Obón-Santacana, Karina Standahl Olsen, Neil Murphy, Frida Renström, Heiner Boeing, Jonas Manjer, Mazda Jenab, Antonia Trichopoulou, Henk J. van Kranen, Fränzel J.B. van Duijnhoven, Veronika Fedirko, Dagfinn Aune, Kathryn E Bradbury, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque
Evidence from in vivo, in vitro and ecological studies are suggestive of a protective effect of vitamin D against pancreatic cancer. However, this has not been confirmed by analytical epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentrations and pancreatic cancer incidence in European populations.
We conducted a pooled nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study's second survey (HUNT2) cohorts. In total, 738 primary incident pancreatic cancer cases (EPIC n=626; HUNT2 n=112; median follow-up = 6.9 years) were matched to 738 controls. Vitamin D [25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 combined] concentrations were determined using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models with adjustments for body mass index and smoking habits were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).
Compared with a reference category of >50 to 75 nmol/L vitamin D, the IRRs (95% CIs) were 0.71 (0.42-1.20); 0.94 (0.72-1.22); 1.12 (0.82-1.53); and 1.26 (0.79-2.01) for clinically pre-defined categories of ≤25; >25 to 50; >75 to 100; and >100 nmol/L vitamin D, respectively (p for trend = 0.09). Corresponding analyses by quintiles of season-standardized vitamin D concentrations also did not reveal associations with pancreatic cancer risk (p for trend = 0.23).
Although these findings among participants from the largest combination of European cohort studies to date show increasing effect estimates of pancreatic cancer risk with increasing pre-diagnostic concentrations of vitamin D, they are not statistically significant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.