3 years ago

Contrasting phylogeography of two Western Palaearctic fish parasites despite similar life cycles

Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot, Christelle Tougard, Serdar Düşen, Rémi Wattier, Marta Špakulová, Ali Aydoğdu, Petr Kotlík
Aim We used comparative phylogeography of two intestinal parasites of freshwater fish to test whether similarity in life cycle translates into concordant phylogeographical history. The thorny-headed worms Pomphorhynchus laevis and P. tereticollis (Acanthocephala) were formerly considered as a single species with a broad geographical and host range within the Western Palaearctic. Location Central and eastern parts of Northern Mediterranean area, Western and Central Europe, Ponto-Caspian Europe. Methods A mitochondrial marker (COI) was sequenced for 111 P. laevis and 50 P. tereticollis individuals and nuclear ITS1 and ITS2 sequences were obtained for 37 P. laevis and 21 P. tereticollis. Genetic divergence, phylogenetic relationships and divergence time were estimated for various lineages within each species, and their phylogeographical patterns were compared to known palaeogeographical events in Western Palaearctic. Biogeographical histories of each species were inferred. Results The two species show very different phylogeographical patterns. Five lineages were identified in P. laevis, partially matching several major biogeographical regions defined in the European riverine fish fauna. The early stages of P. laevis diversification occurred in the peri-Mediterranean area, during the Late Miocene. Subsequent expansion across Western Europe and Russia was shaped by dispersal and vicariant events, from Middle Pliocene to Middle Pleistocene. By contrast, P. tereticollis has differentiated more recently within the Western and Central parts of Europe, and shows weak geographical and genetic structuring. Conclusion Our study highlights weak to moderate similarity in the phylogeographical pattern of these acanthocephalan parasites compared to their amphipod and fish hosts. The observed differences in the timing of dispersion and migration routes taken may reflect the use of a range of final hosts with different ecologies and dispersal capabilities. By using a group underrepresented in phylogeographical studies, our study is a valuable contribution to revealing the biogeography of host–parasite interactions in continental freshwaters.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13118

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