3 years ago

Strong differences between two congeneric species in sensitivity to pesticides in a warming world

Strong differences between two congeneric species in sensitivity to pesticides in a warming world
To predict the impact of pesticides in a warming world we need to know how species differ in the interaction pathways between pesticides and warming. Trait-based approaches have been successful in identifying the ‘pace of life’ and body size as predictors of sensitivity to pesticides among distantly related species. However, it remains to be tested whether these traits allow predicting differences in sensitivity to pesticides between closely related species, and in the strength of the interaction pathways between pesticides and warming. We tested the effects of multiple pulses of chlorpyrifos (allowing accumulation) under warming on key life history traits, heat tolerance (CTmax) and physiology of two congeneric damselfly species: the fast-paced (fast growth and development, high metabolic rate), small Ischnura pumilio and the slow-paced, large I. elegans. Chlorpyrifos reduced survival and growth, but contrary to current trait-based predictions I. pumilio was 8× less sensitive than I. elegans. The lower sensitivity of I. pumilio could be explained by a higher fat content, and higher activities of acetylcholinesterase and of detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes. While for I. pumilio the effect of chlorpyrifos was small and did not depend on temperature, for I. elegans the impact was higher at 20°C compared to 24°C. This matches the higher pesticide accumulation in the water after multiple pulses at 20°C than at 24°C. The expected reduction in heat tolerance after pesticide exposure was present in I. elegans but not in I. pumilio. Our results demonstrate that closely related species can have very different sensitivities to a pesticide resulting in species-specific support for the “toxicant-induced climate change sensitivity” and the “climate-induced toxicant sensitivity” interaction pathways. Our results highlight that trait-based approaches can be strengthened by integrating physiological traits.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0048969717330292

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