3 years ago

Halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables: Levels, dietary intakes, and health risk assessments

Halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables: Levels, dietary intakes, and health risk assessments
Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) are attracting increasing concern because of their greater toxicity than their corresponding parent PAHs. However, human exposure to HPAHs via food consumption is not fully understood. In this study, daily intake via vegetable ingestion of 11 HPAHs and 16 PAHs and subsequent cancer risk were assessed for population in Beijing. A total of 80 vegetable samples were purchased from markets, including five leafy vegetables and three root vegetables. The concentrations of total HPAHs (∑HPAHs) were 0.357–0.874ng/g in all vegetables, lower than that of total PAHs (∑PAHs, 10.6–47.4ng/g). ∑HPAHs and ∑PAHs concentrations in leafy vegetables were higher than those in root vegetables, suggesting that the atmospheric deposition might be the dominant source of PAHs and HPAHs in leafy vegetables. Among the HPAH congeners, 2-BrFle and 9-ClFle were the predominant compounds and frequently detected in the vegetable samples. HPAHs and PAHs were also found in certificated vegetables at the concentrations of 0.466–0.751ng/g and 10.6–38.9ng/g, respectively, which were lower than those in non-certificated vegetables except for spinach. For leafy vegetables from local farms, the ∑PAHs and ∑HPAHs levels in the rape and Chinese cabbage samples significantly decreased with increasing the distance away from the incineration plant. The incremental lifetime cancer risks of HPAHs were below the acceptable risk level (106), suggesting that there might be little or no risk to consumers from these compounds in vegetables. For all population groups, children were the most sensitive population to PAHs and HPAHs, and their health issues should be paid more attention.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0048969717330541

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