4 years ago

Background selection as null hypothesis in population genomics: insights and challenges from Drosophila studies.

Josep M Comeron
The consequences of selection at linked sites are multiple and widespread across the genomes of most species. Here, I first review the main concepts behind models of selection and linkage in recombining genomes, present the difficulty in parametrizing these models simply as a reduction in effective population size (Ne) and discuss the predicted impact of recombination rates on levels of diversity across genomes. Arguments are then put forward in favour of using a model of selection and linkage with neutral and deleterious mutations (i.e. the background selection model, BGS) as a sensible null hypothesis for investigating the presence of other forms of selection, such as balancing or positive. I also describe and compare two studies that have generated high-resolution landscapes of the predicted consequences of selection at linked sites in Drosophila melanogaster Both studies show that BGS can explain a very large fraction of the observed variation in diversity across the whole genome, thus supporting its use as null model. Finally, I identify and discuss a number of caveats and challenges in studies of genetic hitchhiking that have been often overlooked, with several of them sharing a potential bias towards overestimating the evidence supporting recent selective sweeps to the detriment of a BGS explanation. One potential source of bias is the analysis of non-equilibrium populations: it is precisely because models of selection and linkage predict variation in Ne across chromosomes that demographic dynamics are not expected to be equivalent chromosome- or genome-wide. Other challenges include the use of incomplete genome annotations, the assumption of temporally stable recombination landscapes, the presence of genes under balancing selection and the consequences of ignoring non-crossover (gene conversion) recombination events.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0471

DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0471

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