R. Speth, C. G. Mendpara, G. M. Hale, V. H. Amin, N. H. Gonsai
What is known and Objective
Hypertension, a major risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, affects 80 million American adults. The aetiology of hypertension is multifaceted and difficult to identify. Dopamine receptors, especially those in the kidneys, play a role in blood pressure regulation, and alterations in their function can cause hypertension. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between the use of dopamine antagonists with hypertension focusing especially on second-generation antipsychotics, like clozapine that is D4 receptor antagonist.
A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, Ovid, Science Direct, Web of Science and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases with keywords:hypertension, hypotension, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dopaminergic receptors, blood pressure, antipsychotics. Inclusion criteria were human or animal studies, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, case report/series, published in selected for inclusion.
Results and Discussion
All 5 dopamine receptor subtypes (ie D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5) regulate sodium excretion and BP. The D1, D3 and D4 receptors interact directly with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas D2 and D5 receptors directly interact with the sympathetic nervous system to regulate BP. Use of dopaminergic agonists or antagonists could therefore disturb the regulation of BP by dopamine receptors.
What is new and Conclusion
Based upon this review, individuals on antipsychotic agents, particularly clozapine, should be routinely monitored for hypertension, and addition of antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is indicated if hypertension occurs.
Dopamine receptors play a role in blood pressure regulation. The objective of this review is to investigate the association between dopamine antagonist use and hypertension. Based upon this review, individuals on antipsychotic agents, particularly clozapine, should have blood pressure routinely monitored, and addition of antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may be indicated.