4 years ago

A Machine Learning Ensemble Classifier for Early Prediction of Diabetic Retinopathy

Somasundaram S K, Alli P


The main complication of diabetes is Diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vascular disease and it leads to the blindness. Regular screening for early DR disease detection is considered as an intensive labor and resource oriented task. Therefore, automatic detection of DR diseases is performed only by using the computational technique is the great solution. An automatic method is more reliable to determine the presence of an abnormality in Fundus images (FI) but, the classification process is poorly performed. Recently, few research works have been designed for analyzing texture discrimination capacity in FI to distinguish the healthy images. However, the feature extraction (FE) process was not performed well, due to the high dimensionality. Therefore, to identify retinal features for DR disease diagnosis and early detection using Machine Learning and Ensemble Classification method, called, Machine Learning Bagging Ensemble Classifier (ML-BEC) is designed. The ML-BEC method comprises of two stages. The first stage in ML-BEC method comprises extraction of the candidate objects from Retinal Images (RI). The candidate objects or the features for DR disease diagnosis include blood vessels, optic nerve, neural tissue, neuroretinal rim, optic disc size, thickness and variance. These features are initially extracted by applying Machine Learning technique called, t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE). Besides, t-SNE generates a probability distribution across high-dimensional images where the images are separated into similar and dissimilar pairs. Then, t-SNE describes a similar probability distribution across the points in the low-dimensional map. This lessens the Kullback–Leibler divergence among two distributions regarding the locations of the points on the map. The second stage comprises of application of ensemble classifiers to the extracted features for providing accurate analysis of digital FI using machine learning. In this stage, an automatic detection of DR screening system using Bagging Ensemble Classifier (BEC) is investigated. With the help of voting the process in ML-BEC, bagging minimizes the error due to variance of the base classifier. With the publicly available retinal image databases, our classifier is trained with 25% of RI. Results show that the ensemble classifier can achieve better classification accuracy (CA) than single classification models. Empirical experiments suggest that the machine learning-based ensemble classifier is efficient for further reducing DR classification time (CT).

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10916-017-0853-x

DOI: 10.1007/s10916-017-0853-x

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