5 years ago

Concentrations of Carotenoids and Tocopherols in Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers and Their Associations with Maternal Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Lucas Actis-Goretta, Sagar K Thakkar, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Antoine Lévèques, Yong Xue, Yumei Zhang, Esther Campos-Giménez, Karine Meisser Redeuil, Peiyu Wang
Milk composition remains the best estimate of infant requirements. The aims of this study were to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese mothers, and to explore their associations with lactation stage, region, socio-economic and obstetric characteristics, and dietary intake. Human milk was obtained from 509 healthy mothers, and concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols were analyzed by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The mothers' socio-economic and obstetric characteristics and dietary intake through a single 24-h dietary recall were evaluated. The median concentrations (μg/100 mL) of each component of 0-4 days, 5-11 days, 12-30 days, 31-60 days, 61-120 days, and 121-240 days postpartum were respectively as follows: β-carotene 8.0, 2.8, 2.1, 1.7, 1.9, 1.8; β-cryptoxanthin 6.2, 3.4, 2.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2.1; lutein 5.7, 7.0, 2.2, 2.9, 2.8, 3.7; lycopene 6.3, 2.5, 1.8, 1.4, 1.4, 1.5; zeaxanthin 1.0, 1.4, 0.8, 0.8, 1.0, 1.1; α-tocopherol 645, 382, 239, 206, 212, 211; γ-tocopherol 68, 63, 70, 73, 68, 88. The levels of those components varied significantly among different lactation stages and presented regional differences. Associations of carotenoid contents with maternal education, delivery mode, and present body mass index were found in multivariate analyses. These results suggested that lactation stage, region, and socio-economic and obstetric factors were associated with human milk concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in healthy Chinese mothers.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111229

DOI: 10.3390/nu9111229

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