4 years ago

Microbial Processes Mediating the Evolution of Methylarsine Gases from Dimethylarsenate in Paddy Soils

Microbial Processes Mediating the Evolution of Methylarsine Gases from Dimethylarsenate in Paddy Soils
managing.editor@est.acs.org (American Chemical Society)
Arsenic (As) biovolatilization is an important component of the global As biogeochemical cycle. Soils can emit various methylarsine gases, but the underlying microbial processes remain unclear. Here, we show that the addition of molybdate (Mo), an inhibitor of sulfate-reducing bacteria, greatly enhanced dimethylarsine evolution from dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)] added to two paddy soils. Molybdate addition significantly affected the microbial community structure. The aerobic enrichment cultures from both soils volatilized substantial amounts of dimethylarsine from DMAs(V) in the presence of Mo, whereas the anaerobic enrichment cultures did not. A Bacillus strain (CZ-2) capable of reducing DMAs(V) to dimethylarsine was isolated from the aerobic enrichment culture, and its volatilization ability was enhanced by Mo. RNA-seq analysis identified 10 reductase genes upregulated by Mo. Addition of the reducing agent NADH increased dimethylarsine volatilization by strain CZ-2, suggesting that DMAs(V) reductase is an NADH-dependent enzyme. The strain could not methylate arsenite or convert monomethylarsenate and DMAs(V) to trimethylarsine. Our results show that dimethylarsine evolution from DMAs(V) is independent of the As methylation pathway and that Mo enhances dimethylarsine evolution from paddy soils by shifting the microbial community structure and enhancing the reduction of DMAs(V) to dimethylarsine, possibly through upregulating the expression of DMAs(V) reductase gene(s).

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b04791

DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b04791

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