5 years ago

Development and validation of modified QuEChERS method coupled with LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite in various types of honey and royal jelly

Over the past few decades, honey products have been polluted by different contaminants, such as pesticides, which are widely applied in agriculture. In this work, a modified EN − quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of pesticide residues, including cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite 2,4-dimethylaniline (2,4-DMA), in four types of honey (acacia, wild, chestnut, and manuka) and royal jelly. Samples were buffered with 0.2M dibasic sodium phosphate (pH 9), and subsequently, acetonitrile was employed as the extraction solvent. A combination of primary secondary amine (PSA) and C18 sorbent was used for purification prior to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI+/MS-MS) analysis. The estimated linearity measured at six concentration levels presented good correlation coefficients (R2 ) ≥0.99. The recovery, calculated from three different spiking levels, was 62.06–108.79% in honey and 67.58–106.34% in royal jelly, with an RSD <12% for all the tested compounds. The matrix effect was also evaluated, and most of the analytes presented signal enhancement. The limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged between 0.001 and 0.005mg/kg in various samples. These are considerably lower than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by various regulatory authorities. A total of 43 market (domestic and imported) samples were assayed for method application. Among the tested samples, three tested negative and three tested positive for cymiazole residues. The residues in the rest of the samples were detected but not quantified. We concluded that the protocol developed in this work is simple and versatile for the routine detection of cymiazole, 2,4-DMA, fipronil, coumaphos, amitraz, and fluvalinate in various types of honey and royal jelly.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1570023217313508

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