a year ago

Different pharmacokinetics of lithium orotate inform why it is more potent, effective, and less toxic than lithium carbonate in a mouse model of mania

Anthony G. Pacholko, Lane K. Bekar

Lithium carbonate (LiCO) is a mainstay therapeutic for the prevention of mood-episode recurrences in bipolar disorder (BD). Unfortunately, its narrow therapeutic index is associated with complications that may lead to treatment non-compliance. Intriguingly, lithium orotate (LiOr) is suggested to possess unique uptake characteristics that would allow for reduced dosing and mitigation of toxicity concerns. We hypothesized that due to differences in pharmacokinetics, LiOr is more potent with reduced adverse effects. Dose responses were established for LiOr and LiCO in male and female mice using an amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AIH) model; AIH captures manic elements of BD and is sensitive to a dose-dependent lithium blockade. LiCO induced a partial block of AIH at doses of 15 mg/kg in males and 20 mg/kg in females. In contrast, LiOr elicited a near complete blockade at concentrations of just 1.5 mg/kg in both sexes, indicating improved efficacy and potency. Prior application of organic anion transport inhibitors, or inhibition of orotate uptake into the pentose pathway, completely blocked the effects of LiOr on AIH while sparing LiCO effects, confirming differences in transport and compartmentalization between the two compounds. Next, the relative toxicities of LiOr and LiCO were contrasted after 14 consecutive daily administrations. LiCO, but not LiOr, elicited polydipsia in both sexes, elevated serum creatinine levels in males, and increased serum TSH expression in females. LiOr demonstrates superior efficacy, potency, and tolerability to LiCO in both male and female mice because of select transport-mediated uptake and pentose pathway incorporation.

Publisher URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022395623003102

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2023.06.012

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