5 years ago

Jets in Hydrogen-poor Super-luminous Supernovae: Constraints from a Comprehensive Analysis of Radio Observations.

G. Migliori, D. Milisavljevic, M. Drout, L. Chomiuk, P. Challis, R. Margutti, P. K. Blanchard, E. Berger, A. Mac Fadyen, B. A. Zauderer, R. Chornock, K. D. Alexander, J. T. Parrent, C. Guidorzi, M. Nicholl, W. Fong, D. L. Coppejans, M. F. Bietenholz, G. Terreran

The energy source powering the extreme optical luminosity of hydrogen-stripped Superluminous Supernovae (SLSNe-I) is not known, but recent studies have highlighted the case for a central engine. Radio and/or X-ray observations are best placed to track the fastest ejecta and probe the presence of outflows from a central engine. We compile all the published radio observations of SLSNe-I to date and present three new observations of two new SLSNe-I. None were detected. Through modeling the radio emission, we constrain the sub-parsec environments and possible outflows in SLSNe-I. In this sample we rule out on-axis collimated relativistic jets of the kind detected in Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). We constrain off-axis jets with opening angles of 5\arcdeg\ (30\arcdeg) to energies of $\rm{E_k<4\times10^{50}\,erg}$ ($\rm{E_k<10^{50}\,erg}$) in environments shaped by progenitors with mass-loss rates of $\dot{M}<10^{-4}\,M_{\odot}\,{\rm yr}^{-1}$ ($\dot{M}<10^{-5}\,M_{\odot}\,{\rm yr}^{-1}$) for all off-axis angles, assuming fiducial values $\epsilon_e=0.1$ and $\epsilon_B=0.01$. The deepest limits rule out emission of the kind seen in faint un-collimated GRBs (with the exception of GRB\,060218), and from relativistic supernovae. Finally, for the closest SLSN-I SN 2017egm we constrained the energy of an uncollimated non-relativistic outflow like those observed in normal SNe to $E_{\rm k}\lesssim10^{48}$ erg.

Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03428

DOI: arXiv:1711.03428v1

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