4 years ago

Inkjet-Printed Paper-Based Colorimetric Polyion Sensor Using a Smartphone as a Detector

Inkjet-Printed Paper-Based Colorimetric Polyion Sensor Using a Smartphone as a Detector
Mark E. Meyerhoff, Xuewei Wang, Mollie Mahoney
The first paper-based polyion-sensitive optodes are reported. Dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (a cation exchanger) and chromoionophore I (a lipophilic optical pH indicator) are printed on filter paper in the absence of any plasticizer and/or additional hydrophobic polymeric phase. The resulting optodes exhibit sensitive colorimetric response to polycations such as protamine but not to small inorganic cations because only polycations are able to form cooperative ion pairs with dinonylnaphthalenesulfonate adsorbed to the cellulose paper. The color change of the optode is recorded via an iPhone camera and analyzed by an iPhone App. The protamine-sensing optode platform is used to indirectly detect protease activity (trypsin) based on proteolytic digestion of protamine, and polyanions (pentosan polysulfate and heparin) based on the strong binding reaction of polyanions with protamine. The indirect sensing system is further simplified on a multilayer membrane device that consists of an optode paper site modified with buffer to prevent optode dependence on sample pH, and an underlying cellulose acetate filter membrane coated with protamine to eliminate addition of the indicator polycation into the sample. The detection of pentosan polysulfate concentrations in an undiluted urine sample is successfully demonstrated via this approach. Lastly, it is shown that plasticizer-free polyanion-sensitive optodes based on an adsorbed layer of quaternary ammonium type anion exchanger and a phenolic azo type proton chromoionophore can also be fabricated directly on cellulose paper strips.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b03352

DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b03352

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