4 years ago

Anticancer activities of emetine prodrugs that are proteolytically activated by the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and evaluation of in-vivo toxicity of emetine derivatives

Anticancer activities of emetine prodrugs that are proteolytically activated by the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and evaluation of in-vivo toxicity of emetine derivatives
Emetine is a small molecule protein synthesis inhibitor that is toxic to all cell types and therefore suitable for complete killing of all types of heterogeneous cancer cells within a tumor. It becomes significantly inactive (non-toxic) when derivatized at its N-2' secondary amine. This provides a strategy for targeting emetine to cancerous tumor without killing normal cells. In this report, PSA activatable peptide prodrugs of emetine were synthesized. To overcome steric hindrances and enhance protease specific cleavage, a 2-stage prodrug activation process was needed to release emetine in cancer cells. In this 2-stage process, emetine prodrug intermediates are coupled to PSA peptide substrate (Ac-His-Ser-Ser-Lys-Leu-Gln) to obtain the full prodrug. Both prodrug intermediates 10 (Ala-Pro-PABC-Emetine) and 14 (Ser-Leu-PABC-Emetine) were evaluated for kinetics of hydrolysis to emetine and potency [Where PABC = p-aminobenzyloxycarbonyl]. While both intermediates quantitatively liberate emetine when incubated under appropriate conditions, upon coupling of PSA substrate to give the full prodrugs, only prodrug 16, the prodrug obtained from 14 was hydrolyzable by PSA. Cytotoxicity studies in PSA producing LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 confirm the activation of the prodrug by PSA with an IC50 of 75 nM and 59 nM respectively. The cytotoxicity of 16 is significantly reduced in cell lines that do not produce PSA. Further, in-vivo toxicity studies are done on these prodrugs and other derivatives of emetine. The results show the significance of conformational modulation in obtaining safe emetine prodrugs.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0968089617316395

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.