4 years ago

Challenges and Advances for Genetic Engineering of Non-model Bacteria and Uses in Consolidated Bioprocessing.

Stephen S Fong, Qiang Yan
Metabolic diversity in microorganisms can provide the basis for creating novel biochemical products. However, most metabolic engineering projects utilize a handful of established model organisms and thus, a challenge for harnessing the potential of novel microbial functions is the ability to either heterologously express novel genes or directly utilize non-model organisms. Genetic manipulation of non-model microorganisms is still challenging due to organism-specific nuances that hinder universal molecular genetic tools and translatable knowledge of intracellular biochemical pathways and regulatory mechanisms. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in synthetic biology, molecular genetics tools development, applications of omics data techniques, and computational tools that can aid in developing non-model hosts in a systematic manner. In this review, we focus on concerns and approaches related to working with non-model microorganisms including developing molecular genetics tools such as shuttle vectors, selectable markers, and expression systems. In addition, we will discuss: (1) current techniques in controlling gene expression (transcriptional/translational level), (2) advances in site-specific genome engineering tools [homologous recombination (HR) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)], and (3) advances in genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) in guiding design of non-model species. Application of these principles to metabolic engineering strategies for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) will be discussed along with some brief comments on foreseeable future prospects.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02060

DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02060

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