3 years ago

Recent insights into the implications of metabolism in plasmacytoid dendritic cell innate functions: Potential ways to control these functions [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations]

Philippe Saas, Alexis Varin, Adam Ceroi, Sylvain Perruche
There are more and more data concerning the role of cellular metabolism in innate immune cells, such as macrophages or conventional dendritic cells. However, few data are available currently concerning plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), another type of innate immune cells. These cells are the main type I interferon (IFN) producing cells, but they also secrete other pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor or interleukin [IL]-6) or immunomodulatory factors (e.g., IL-10 or transforming growth factor-β). Through these functions, PDC participate in antimicrobial responses or maintenance of immune tolerance, and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several autoimmune diseases. Recent data support the idea that the glycolytic pathway (or glycolysis), as well as lipid metabolism (including both cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism) may impact some innate immune functions of PDC or may be involved in these functions after Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/9 triggering. Some differences may be related to the origin of PDC (human versus mouse PDC or blood-sorted versus FLT3 ligand stimulated-bone marrow-sorted PDC). The kinetics of glycolysis may differ between human and murine PDC. In mouse PDC, metabolism changes promoted by TLR7/9 activation may depend on an autocrine/paracrine loop, implicating type I IFN and its receptor IFNAR, explaining a delayed glycolysis. Moreover, PDC functions can be modulated by the metabolism of cholesterol and fatty acids. This may occur via the production of lipid ligands that activate nuclear receptors (e.g., liver X receptor [LXR]) in PDC or through limiting intracellular cholesterol pool size (by statins or LXR agonists) in these cells. Finally, lipid-activated nuclear receptors (i.e., LXR or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor) may also directly interact with pro-inflammatory transcription factors, such as NF-κB. Here, we discuss how glycolysis and lipid metabolism may modulate PDC functions and how this may be harnessed in pathological situations where PDC play a detrimental role.

Publisher URL: https://f1000research.com/articles/6-456/v1

DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.11332.1

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