4 years ago

Optimized amplitude modulated multiband RF pulse design

Shaihan J. Malik, Joseph V. Hajnal, Samy Abo Seada, Anthony N. Price
Purpose Multiband pulses are characterized by highly temporally modulated waveforms. Rapid phase or frequency modulation can be extremely demanding on the performance of radiofrequency (RF) pulse generation, which can lead to errors that can be avoided if pulses are restricted to amplitude modulation (AM) only. In this work, three existing multiband pulse design techniques are modified to produce AM waveforms. Theory and Methods Multiband refocusing pulses were designed using phase-optimization, time-shifting, and root-flipping. Each technique was constrained to produce AM pulses by exploiting conjugate symmetry in their respective frequency domain representations. Pulses were designed using the AM and unconstrained techniques for a range of multiband factors (ie, number of simultaneously excited slices), time-bandwidth products, and slice separations. Performance was compared by examining the resulting effective pulse durations. Phantom and in vivo experiments were conducted for validation. Results Acquired data confirmed that AM pulses can produce precise results when unconstrained designs may produce artifacts. The average duration of AM pulses is longer than the unconstrained versions. Averaged across a range of parameters, the duration cost for AM pulses was 26, 38, and 20% for phase-optimizing, time-shifting and root-flipping, respectively. Conclusions Amplitude modulation multiband pulses can be produced for a relatively small increase in pulse duration. Magn Reson Med 78:2185–2193, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26610

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