4 years ago

Development of amplicon deep sequencing markers and data analysis pipeline for genotyping multi-clonal malaria infections

Development of amplicon deep sequencing markers and data analysis pipeline for genotyping multi-clonal malaria infections
Ivo Mueller, Camilla Messerli, Stephen Wilcox, Cristian Koepfli, Liam O’Connor, Ingrid Felger, Natalie E. Hofmann, Johanna H. Kattenberg, Anita Lerch, Inoni Betuela
Amplicon deep sequencing permits sensitive detection of minority clones and improves discriminatory power for genotyping multi-clone Plasmodium falciparum infections. New amplicon sequencing and data analysis protocols are needed for genotyping in epidemiological studies and drug efficacy trials of P. falciparum. Targeted sequencing of molecular marker csp and novel marker cpmp was conducted in duplicate on mixtures of parasite culture strains and 37 field samples. A protocol allowing to multiplex up to 384 samples in a single sequencing run was applied. Software “HaplotypR” was developed for data analysis. Cpmp was highly diverse (He = 0.96) in contrast to csp (He = 0.57). Minority clones were robustly detected if their frequency was >1%. False haplotype calls owing to sequencing errors were observed below that threshold. To reliably detect haplotypes at very low frequencies, experiments are best performed in duplicate and should aim for coverage of >10′000 reads/amplicon. When compared to length polymorphic marker msp2, highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing displayed greater sensitivity in detecting minority clones.
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