4 years ago

Cholangitis and Cholangiohepatitis in Dogs: A Descriptive Study of 54 Cases Based on Histopathologic Diagnosis (2004–2014)

J.L. Harrison, J. Callahan Clark, B.J. Turek, C. Bradley, D.C. Brown
Background Cholangitis in dogs appears to be more common than previously thought, but understanding of the disease remains incomplete. Objective To describe a population of dogs with cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis. Animals Fifty-four client-owned dogs with cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis. Methods Medical records of dogs with cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis confirmed by histopathology between January 2004 and December 2014 were identified using a computer-based search and retrospectively reviewed. Results Clinical signs included vomiting (72.2%), lethargy (70.4%), and inappetence (64.8%). Most dogs (49/50) had increased liver enzyme activities, hyperbilirubinemia (32/50), and hypercholesterolemia (24/43). Ultrasonographic abnormalities of the hepatobiliary system were seen in 84% of cases. On histopathology, 53 of 54 affected dogs had neutrophilic cholangitis (NC) or cholangiohepatitis, whereas 1 dog had lymphocytic cholangitis. Most cases (42/54) were chronic. Evidence of concurrent biliary disease (46.2%) and biliary tract obstruction (42.6%) was common. Seventeen of 36 biliary and 11 of 25 liver cultures were positive for bacterial growth; Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were most common. Median patient survival was 671 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 114–1,426). On Cox regression, dogs that did not have a cholecystectomy performed had a 2.1 greater hazard for death (P = 0.037; 95% CI: 1.0–4.3) compared to cholecystectomized dogs. Dogs >13 years old had a 5.0 greater hazard for death (P = 0.001; 95% CI: 1.9–13.2) compared to younger dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Significance Chronic NC or cholangiohepatitis was most common. Cholecystitis and biliary tract obstruction often occurred in conjunction with cholangitis. Cholecystectomized dogs had decreased risk of death; thus, cholecystectomy may improve patient outcome.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/jvim.14866

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