5 years ago

Universal Spatial Structure of Nonequilibrium Steady States.

Benjamin Withers, Julian Sonner
We describe a large family of nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) corresponding to forced flows over obstacles. The spatial structure at large distances from the obstacle is shown to be universal, and can be quantitatively characterized in terms of certain collective modes of the strongly coupled many body system, which we define in this work. In holography, these modes are spatial analogues of quasinormal modes, which are known to be responsible for universal aspects of relaxation of time dependent systems. These modes can be both hydrodynamical or nonhydrodynamical in origin. The decay lengths of the hydrodynamic modes are set by η/s, the shear viscosity over entropy density ratio, suggesting a new route to experimentally measuring this ratio. We also point out a new class of nonequilibrium phase transitions, across which the spatial structure of the NESS undergoes a dramatic change, characterized by the properties of the spectrum of these spatial collective modes.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.161603

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.161603

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